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Rocks and Minerals part 1

Posted by Ron Jean on 6/26/2013 to Ingredients
 
Throughout the cosmetic industry and nutritional fields there are countless references to these often misunderstood substances.
 
At times, their names are used vaguely often leaving one at odds with pure scientific facts and logic:
 
      • Stone massage,
      • Mineral make-up,
      • Crystal lattices,
      • Gem - o - therapy
      • Rock salting..
      • to name a few.

 An elderly University Geology professor of mine who specialized in mineralogy, stated outright at the first day of classes: 
  
“ A stone is what you throw at stray dogs, and that is the last you will hear me use that word” . 
 
 I wonder how his blood boils when he goes to the Great Spa in heaven for his “ Stone Massage”!!!!
 
 
 

This information bulletin is divided into the following parts

              Part 1:   Definitions
              Part 2:   Minerals and mineral make-up
              Part 3:   Stone Massage and Mineral therapy

 

 

Definitions

A sage man once said:
the essence of civilized discussion always starts with a definition of terms.

Rock is a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals .The classification of rocks usually starts by the origin of the rock and processes that formed it.
 
Sedimentary rocks are formed by the cementing or lithification of transported and deposited sediments.  An example of sedimentary rock is sandstone.
 
Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification of molten silicate materials. If the solidification happens at the surface of the earth the molten silicate material is called Lava. If the solidification occurs deep within the earth’s crust the molten mass is called Magma. An example of Igneous rock is granite.
 
Metamorphic rocks occur as a result of a change in mineral composition or mineral alignment of solid rocks ( igneous or sedimentary)  due to high temperature, high pressure or both without the addition of new material. An example of Metamorphic rock is marble. Further classification of rocks is based on the principle mineral components of the rock.

As we can see the fundamental units of a rock are its minerals. A Mineral is a naturally homogeneous crystalline solid. The ions,atoms, molecules of one or more elements are arranged regularly in a definite lattice or pattern. If the pattern develops well defined planes or “ Faces” the mineral is referred to as a crystal. Crystalline particle refers to the fact that there are no well defined planes.

 A Stone is a layman’s term for any unidentified rock.

 A Powder is a layman’s term for fine particulate size, whereas Dust refers to particulate size smaller than 1/16th mm. A Pigment is a substance imparting color

 

Organic: a substance having Carbon as one of its components.   Given the position of the Carbon element on the Chemical Periodic Table , one can readily see that Carbon can form compounds by giving up electrons or by filling up its electron shells from other elements. It is not surprising then that Organic compounds are quite diverse and more complex than inorganic compounds.

 

Inorganic: a substance without any Carbon atoms. In rock forming minerals, Silicates are the most diverse. A quick glimpse again at the Periodic Table reveals its position to be similar to Carbon and just below it. So Silica is also ambivalent.

 

Further classification of minerals will give insight as to how vast the field is and how modern cosmetic formulations are merely scratching the surface.

 

Although many industrial sources only speak of inorganic minerals, Minerals can be of Organic or Inorganic matter.  Minerals can be made of a single pure element or most commonly, can be made from compounds of two or more elements. Table 1 lists some common minerals.

 

Although Minerals are frequently used in formulations for their chemical or physical properties. At times they are used as inexpensive fillers.

 

 

Table : 1   Common Minerals

 

 

 

 

 

Single Element Minerals

 

 

 

Diamond

100% Carbon

Organic

 

Graphite

100% Carbon

Organic ( Different Lattice than Diamond)

 

Copper

Cu

Metal

 

Sulfur

S

Inorganic

 

 

 

 

Compound Minerals ( two or more elements)

Carbonates (..CO3)

 

Often includes borates and nitrates

 

Calcite

CaCO3

Calcium Carbonate ( organic)

 

Dolomite

CaMgCO3

Calcium Magnesium Carbonate ( organic)

 

Smithsonite

ZnCO3

Zinc Carbonate ( Organic)

 

Malachite

Cu2CO3

Copper Carbonate ( organic)

 

 

 

 

Halides  ( Salts)

 

 

 

Chlorides

NaCl

Table salt

 

Bromides

CaF2

Calcium Floride

 

 

 

 

Sulfides

 

 

 

Pyrite

FeS2

Iron Sulfide

 

Galena

PbS

Lead Sulfide

 

Calcopyrite

CuFeS2

Copper Iron Sulfide

 

 

 

 

Sulfates

 

 

 

Gypsum

CaSO4

Calcium Sulfate

 

Barite

BaSO4

Barium Sulfate

 

 

 

 

Oxydes

 

 

 

Iron Oxyde

FeO

 

 

Zinc Oxyde

ZnO

 

 

Titanium Diozyde

TiO2

 

 

 

also includes Saphire , Ruby, Amethists

 

 

 

 

 

Silicates

 

 

 

Mica

Aluminum Silicate

 

 

Talc

Magnesium Silicate

 

 

Quartz

SiO2

 

 The use of Minerals in the cosmetic industry is widespread.  whole industries and countries are well known for their use of Minerals such as " Dead Sea Salts"  which are halides.  Diamond Peels use Diamonds for skin abrasion and exfoliation.  Pyrites are used in some eye pencils and oxydes are common sources of pigments . Sulfates are used in specialty thermal hard lift off masks.  Mineral uses in Cosmetics are quite common.
 
Part 2 of this article will deal with Mineral Make-ups
Part 3 will deal with Pevonia's Sabai experience.
 
 
 
 
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